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张微.黑龙江绥棱县一次超级单体强冰雹成因分析[J].沙漠与绿洲气象,2019,13(5):62~67
黑龙江绥棱县一次超级单体强冰雹成因分析
Study on the Formation and Suppression of a Severe Hail Caused by Supercell Storm
投稿时间:2018-11-17  修订日期:2019-04-09
DOI:10.12057/j.issn.1002-0799.2019.05.009
中文关键词:  超级单体  强冰雹  冰雹成因  冰雹防御
英文关键词:supercell  severe hail  formation of hail  hail suppression
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
张微 黑龙江省人工影响天气办公室 373024962@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      利用常规天气资料、卫星及其反演云参数、雷达等综合观测资料,对2016年6月3日发生在黑龙江省绥棱县超级单体风暴进行不同尺度分析,分析降雹成因及降雹特点,并对人工防雹作业时机、部位及作业用弹量进行研究。研究表明:此次过程是高空冷涡和地面低压共同作用造成的,冷暖空气交汇、上干下湿不稳定层结配置及地面风速的辐合是这次过程的触发机制;冰雹云团在午后迅速发展,水平尺度迅速增长,云顶快速抬升,云高>9km范围扩大到90km,形成明显的卷云砧;分析雷达回波可知,此次超级单体风暴过程出现了中气旋、有界弱回波区及悬垂回波等典型特征,垂直累积液态含水量(VIL)在降雹前出现了跃增,且跃增时间提前10~15min,对于冰雹短时预报具有一定指示意义。作业时机应选择在单体或多单体的初始阶段就提前作业,作业成功率较大,作业部位可在有界弱回波区(BWER)及悬垂回波区域进行多站点联合作业,可取得较好的防雹效果。
英文摘要:
      Using a variety of observation data, the supercell storm happened in Suileng County of Heilongjiang Province on June 3th 2016 was analyzed at different scales. The causes of hail formation and its characteristics were analyzed, and the time, position and ammunition of hail suppression were studied. The results show that the low vortex and surface low-pressure were the main synoptic systems, and the trigger mechanism were the intersection of cold and dry air in the upper-level and the warm and wet air in the low-level, as well as the convergence of surface wind. The hail cloud developed rapidly in the afternoon, the horizontal scale and cloud top increased dramatically. The cloud body with top higher than 9km expanded a scope of 90km and an obvious cirrus anvil were formatted. Typical radar echo features such as mesocyclone, bounded weak echo region(BWER), and suspended echo also appeared in the supercell storm. It was also found an abrupt increase of vertical integration of liquid water content(VIL) ahead of 10~15min,which was of certain indicating significance for hail forecasting. The hail suppression can be operated in the formation stage of the single-cell or multi-cell, and in the regions both of the BWER and the suspended echo, which could get good hail suppressing effects.
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