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苏军锋,樊明,吴文辉,冯瑾瑞,魏清霞.甘肃东南部两次极端致灾暴雨对比分析[J].沙漠与绿洲气象,2019,13(5):26~33
甘肃东南部两次极端致灾暴雨对比分析
Contrast Analysis of Two Extreme Disaster Rainstorms in southeastern Gansu
投稿时间:2018-11-05  修订日期:2019-02-14
DOI:10.12057/j.issn.1002-0799.2019.05.004
中文关键词:  甘肃东南部  极端暴雨  对比分析  中尺度对流云团
英文关键词:southeastern Gansu  extreme rainstorms  contrast analysis  mesoscale convective cloud
基金项目:气象预报业务关键技术发展专项“精细化格点预报订正关键技术研究”(YBGJXM(2017)03-04);中国气象局预报员专项(CMAYBY2018-077)
作者单位E-mail
苏军锋 甘肃省陇南市气象局 甘肃 武都 lnsqxjsjf@126.com 
樊明 甘肃省陇南市气象局 甘肃 武都  
吴文辉 陇南市气象局  
冯瑾瑞 甘肃省陇南市武都区马营初级中学 甘肃 武都  
魏清霞 陇南市气象局  
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中文摘要:
      为研究甘肃东南部相同气候背景条件下极端暴雨天气的成因,提高极端暴雨强度和落区预报准确率,利用NCEP再分析资料、自动气象站降水资料、常规观测资料及卫星云图资料,对发生在8月上旬甘肃东南部陇南市两次极端暴雨进行对比分析。结果表明:两次极端暴雨天气过程都伴随短时强降水等强对流性天气,具有降水量大、雨强强、灾害重的特点,其中暴雨落区和空间分布不同,“1387”暴雨区偏南,强降水区域小,持续时间短;“1787”暴雨区偏北,强降水范围大,持续时间长。“1387”和“1787”暴雨主要的影响系统分别为高空低槽、低层切变线和高原槽、低层低涡;“1387”暴雨过程在强冷空气影响下,不稳定条件更好,对流强度更强,“1787”暴雨过程在弱冷空气和低空急流和低涡的共同作用下,湿层厚度厚,低层水汽辐合强度、涡度以及垂直速度更强,致使降水效率更高,但对流强度相对较弱。卫星云图上,“1387”暴雨过程对流发展旺盛,形成强中尺度对流云团中,暴雨落区和对流云团呈带状;“1787”暴雨过程对流云团尺度小,发展范围小,有暖云降水特征,降水效率高,降水持续时间长,暴雨范围更大,短时强降水站次更多。
英文摘要:
      By using the NCEP reanalysis data, automatic weather station precipitation data and conventional observation data, satellite data, two extreme torrential rainstorms in southeastern Gansu occurred in early August are comparatively analyzed under such a climatic situation and to improve the accuracy of extreme rainfall intensity and forecast. The results show that both extreme rainstorm weather processes are accompanied by severe convective weather such as short-time heavy rainfall, which has the characteristics of large precipitation, strong rain and heavy disaster. The rainstorm area and spatial distribution are different. The heavy rain area is southerly, the heavy precipitation area is small and the duration is short of the 1387 rainstorm process; the 1787 rainstorm process area is northerly, with a large range of heavy precipitation and a long duration. The main influencing systems are high altitude trough, low level shear line, plateau trough and low level vortex respectively. At the same time, under the influence of strong cold air, the 1387 rainstorm process has better unstable conditions and stronger convection intensity. Under the combined action of weak cold air, low air jet and low vortex, the 1787 rainstorm process has thick wet layer, stronger water-vapor convergence strength, vorticity and vertical velocity, resulting in higher precipitation efficiency and weaker convection intensity. on the satellite cloud, the 1387 rainstorm process has a strong convective development, forming a strong mesoscale convective cloud cluster, the rainstorm area and the convective cloud cluster are banded; In the rainstorm process of the 1787 rainstorm process, the scale of convective cloud is small and the development scope is small. It has the characteristics of warm cloud precipitation, high precipitation efficiency, long precipitation duration, larger rainstorm range and more short-time heavy precipitation stations.
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